A common infectious disease in children is scarlet fever – it can occur repeatedly, often and not only in children. Another common disease is chicken-pox for which there is the option of vaccination. However, despite this, it is still a common occurrence. On the other hand, vaccination against measles and rubella is much greater. As a result, these diseases are much less frequent. The so-called fifth (erythema infectiosum) and sixth (roseola infantum) diseases are very similar. The fifth disease is more frequent and is characterized by a mild fever and a rash, which is often misdiagnosed as an allergic reaction. The sixth disease is more frequent and easily diagnosed: the child has high fevers for two to three days. As soon as the temperature drops, a rash occurs and never occurs along with the fever as well. These are viral diseases and are therefore not treated by antibiotics, but like all other viral diseases – by medicaments lowering the temperature and a prescribed period of calm etc.
From infectious diseases, pediatricians most commonly encounter viremias, primarily viral infections of the respiratory tract. Then, they tend to be viral infections of the digestive tract, common diseases such as those mentioned or various types of flu, etc. Furthermore, the list also includes various anginas of bacterial and viral origin.